Consolidating society

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By the time hostilities ended in July 1953, approximately two-thirds of China’s combat divisions had seen service in Korea.

In the three years of war, a “Resist America, aid Korea” campaign translated the atmosphere of external threat into a spirit of sacrifice and enforced patriotic emergency at home.

He promoted these techniques on a national basis when he moved to Beijing in late 1952 to set up the State Planning Commission.

Working closely with the head of the party’s Organization Department and other senior officials, Gao allegedly tried to drastically reduce the authority of his potential competitors, notably Zhou Enlai, both leading members of party and state organs.

A Suppression of Counterrevolutionaries campaign dealt violently with many former leaders of secret societies, religious associations, and the KMT in early 1951.

In late 1951 and early 1952, three major political campaigns brought the revolutionary essence of the CCP home to key urban groups.

During 1949–50, policy toward the cities focused on restoring order, rehabilitating the economy, and, above all, wringing disastrous inflation out of the urban economy.

To accomplish these tasks, the CCP tried to discipline the labour force, win over the confidence of the capitalists, and implement drastic fiscal policies so as to undercut inflation.

In the several provinces of Manchuria (now called the Northeast), there was a growing concentration of industrial and military presence, as well as an increased presence of Soviet economic advisers and key elements of China’s tiny corps of technicians and specialists.In 1959, after a period of sporadic clashes with the Chinese, the Tibetans rose in rebellion, to which Beijing responded with force.Under the Agrarian Reform Law of 1950, the property of rural landlords was confiscated and redistributed, which fulfilled a promise to the peasants and smashed a class identified as feudal or semifeudal.These programs coincided with a massive effort to win over the population to the leadership.Such acts as a marriage law (May 1950) and a trade-union law (June 1950) symbolized the break with the old society, while mass organizations and the regime’s “campaign style” dramatized the new.

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