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(See also Appendix A) In 1713, by the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht, Acadia (modern Nova Scotia and New Brunswick) was transferred from French to British jurisdiction.In the ensuing decades of the 18th century, representatives of the British Crown negotiated Peace and Friendship treaties with the "Wabanaki Confederacy" in the Atlantic region.According to the "Articles of Submission and Agreement," the Aboriginal signatories agreed to the following: to acknowledge the jurisdiction and Dominion of the British Crown; to not molest settlers or interfere with trade; to pay restitution in cases where they committed robbery; to apprehend British deserters; to rely on British courts to settle disputes; and finally, to release any prisoners.The 1725 treaty was subsequently ratified by the Mi'kmaq at various locations in Nova Scotia in the years 1726, 17.(17) Another provision stated that signatories would be provided with bread, flour and other provisions in proportion to family size "for time to come," each half year.Annual gifts of tobacco, shot and powder were promised for keeping the peace and renewing the treaty.This section explores treaty activity in Canada, from the era of New France to the present.
The French dream of ascendancy in North America came to an end with the capitulation of Québec and Montréal and the signing of the 1763 Treaty of Paris.
On the West Coast, 14 treaties on Vancouver Island were negotiated in the period 1850 to 1854 by James Douglas, Chief Factor of the Hudson's Bay Company and later, Governor of Vancouver Island.
Western Canada, northern Ontario and a portion of Yukon and the Northwest Territories are covered by the numbered Treaties 1 to 11, executed between 18.
In the years 17, the Maliseet and Passamaquoddy confirmed and renewed the Peace and Friendship treaties of 1725, 17.
In September 1779, at Halifax, in what was the last major treaty negotiation, the Mi'kmaq from Cape Tormentine to the Bay of Chaleur ratified the terms of the previous treaties dating back to 1725.